Humza Yousaf set out his views on industrial policy in an independent Scotland, including a plan to use up to £20billion in oil revenues to fund capital spending.
The First Minister spoke in Glasgow on Monday afternoon, describing the UK as the "poor man of North-west Europe".
He added that the "huge prize of independence" would be an additional £10,200 for the typical Scottish household should the country become independent.
And he added that a new fund would be set up to kick-start investment.
He said: "Our initial estimate is that we would use the fund to undertake capital spending of up to £20billion over the first decade of independence.
"It would be financed through oil revenues and if needed borrowing."
He added: "Indeed floating offshore wind is a huge opportunity for Scotland.
"With our expertise in oil and gas extraction in the North Sea there is a clear read across in skills, and we are already home to the two largest floating wind farms in the world.
"But to take full advantage a significant investment in port facilities is required.
"Clearly with the normal capital borrowing powers of an independent country such investment becomes much more achievable."
Sarwar accuses SNP and Tories of 'dirty tricks'
Hours earlier in the day, Anas Sarwar set his stall out to independence voters in a bid to win their support to "change our country for the better".
"We may ultimately disagree on the final destination for Scotland," added Sarwar.
"But on this part of the journey, let us unite to change our country and get rid of this Tory government."
The Scottish Labour leader also said the he expects the SNP and Conservatives to resort to "dirty tricks" to cling onto power at Westminster and Holyrood.